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Bankruptcy Terms

The Law Offices of David K. Blazek, P.C. Dec. 19, 2023

Bankruptcy Law Books on Shelf for Legal ReferenceUnderstanding bankruptcy can feel like trying to decipher a foreign language. It's filled with terms that might seem complicated and even intimidating. That's why The Law Offices of David K. Blazek, P.C., based in Tampa, Florida, and serving clients throughout Miami, Jacksonville, Orlando, and Atlanta, Macon, and Columbus, Georgia, is here to help. This guide aims to break down these terms, making the process less daunting, and providing you with the knowledge you need to make informed decisions. 

Chapter 7 Bankruptcy: The Liquidation Bankruptcy 

Chapter 7 bankruptcy, often referred to as liquidation bankruptcy, involves the sale of an individual's or business's assets to eliminate their debts. It's a serious step and one that requires careful consideration. It's suitable for those who are facing insurmountable debt and lack significant assets. 

In Chapter 7 bankruptcy, non-exempt assets, such as second homes, stocks, and bank accounts, are sold off to pay debts. This form of bankruptcy is often a good fit for individuals with an income below the median in their state. However, it's important to remember that while it can provide a fresh start, it also means giving up non-exempt property. 

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy: The Reorganization Bankruptcy 

Chapter 11 bankruptcy, on the other hand, is commonly referred to as reorganization bankruptcy. It provides businesses with an opportunity to reorganize their affairs, operations, and assets while gradually repaying their debts. This option is suitable for businesses that have a viable chance of overcoming financial issues. 

In Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the debtor proposes a repayment plan, which must be approved by the court and creditors. Although this process can be lengthy and expensive, it offers a chance for businesses to regain financial stability and continue their operations. 

Chapter 13 Bankruptcy: The Wage Earner's Bankruptcy 

Chapter 13 bankruptcy, also known as the wage earner's bankruptcy, is available to individuals with a regular source of income. It involves creating a structured payment plan to repay debts over a three to five-year period. Unlike Chapter 7, Chapter 13 allows individuals to retain their assets, including homes and cars, while repaying their debts using future earnings. 

This option is suitable for individuals who want to keep their assets and have an income above the median in their state. It's a form of debt consolidation, allowing individuals to make manageable payments over time rather than liquidating assets. 

Bankruptcy Means Test: Determining Eligibility 

A crucial factor in determining eligibility for Chapter 7 bankruptcy is the bankruptcy means test. It assesses an individual's income and expenses to determine if they qualify for Chapter 7 or if Chapter 13 is a more suitable option. Individuals with income below the state median generally qualify for Chapter 7, while those with higher income may be required to file for Chapter 13. 

Bankruptcy and Credit Score: Rebuilding Financial Stability 

Filing for bankruptcy will likely have a negative impact on an individual's credit score. However, with responsible financial habits and proper management, it is possible to rebuild credit over time. Bankruptcy should not be seen as a failure but rather as a tool to achieve debt relief and financial stability. 

Additional Bankruptcy Terms 

It's essential to understand some key terms that are frequently used in the process. These terms and definitions will further enlighten you on the bankruptcy process and help you navigate through it more effectively.  

  • Automatic Stay: An injunction that temporarily stops lawsuits, foreclosures, garnishments, and all collection activity against the debtor the moment a bankruptcy petition is filed. 

  • Bankruptcy Trustee: A person appointed by the court to oversee the debtor's case, evaluate and make recommendations about various debtor demands and plans. 

  • Claim: The assertion by a creditor of a right to payment from a debtor or the debtor's property. 

  • Consumer Debtor: A debtor whose debts are primarily consumer debts. 

  • Discharge: A release of a debtor from most of their debts. Some debts are not dischargeable under the law. 

  • Equity: The value of a debtor's interest in property that remains after liens and other creditors' interests are considered. 

  • Exemptions/Exempt Property: Certain property owned by an individual debtor that the Bankruptcy Code allows the debtor to keep from creditors. 

  • Insolvent: A person, partnership, or corporation that either cannot pay its debts as they come due or has more debts than assets. 

  • Lien: A charge upon specific property designed to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation. 

  • Secured Creditor: An individual or business holding a claim against the debtor that is secured by a lien on property of the estate. 

Understanding these terms is the first step in demystifying the bankruptcy process. While the terms can be complex, a sound understanding will empower you to make informed decisions about your financial future.

Remember, if you're considering bankruptcy, it's advisable to seek legal advice to ensure that you're making the best decisions for your situation. Achieving financial stability may be a challenging journey, but with the right guidance and understanding, it's a feasible goal. 

Navigate Through Bankruptcy With Confidence 

In conclusion, understanding different bankruptcy terms and options is essential when considering filing for bankruptcy. Whether it's Chapter 7, Chapter 11, or Chapter 13, each option has its own implications and eligibility criteria. Consulting with an experienced bankruptcy attorney like David K. Blazek is crucial to navigating the complexities of bankruptcy and making informed decisions. If you're facing financial hardship, don't hesitate to contact The Law Offices of David K. Blazek, P.C. for a free case assessment and comprehensive legal counsel